ASML is a gigantic tech company that you have likely never even heard of before today. They are the one and only manufacturers of Silicon printed chips for everything from medical equipment to the very device you are reading this article from. Chances are, they probably designed and created the printed for the chip you are using. They are especially known for a special technology called EUV lithography.
ASML is the world’s only manufacturer of lithography machines that use extreme ultraviolet light. EUV lithography uses light with a wavelength of just 13.5 nanometers (nearly x-ray level), a reduction of almost 14 times that of the other enabling lithography solution in advanced chipmaking, DUV (deep ultraviolet) lithography, which uses 193-nanometer light.
The process they go through here is absolutely mind blowing. It's a feat of engineering on a nearly molecular scale, and with speeds of ultraviolet rays traveling immensely close to the natural speed limit. Honestly the best way to describe this without going full science nerd, is that they shoot tiny droplet of tin that gets obliterated by pulse laser beam, thus creating a plasma that will emit EUV light. Then the light is redirected by several mirrors, sculpting it and imprinting nano-sized chips.
Until 2015, ASML had many issues understanding plasma physics in its role producing enough power in the system. They came through and were able to overcome by controlling how they delivered the energy to the droplet, and to the tin after which becomes "very critical"
Sometimes words don't do it justice. If you are interested learning more about the Extreme Physics Pushing Pushing Moore's law to the Next Level. Check the video below: